Our Research Scales

The authors hold the US copyright to each of the three scales mentioned here and they are not in the public domain. However, they are available for researchers to use for non-commercial research purposes.  Please keep us posted on your findings.


Overindulged: Indicators of Overindulgence Scale (OIOS) is a 14-item instrument designed to measure parental overindulgence from the point of view of the child (of any age). Overindulged uses a weighted scoring system that produces an aggregate score and three sub-scale scores: (1) Too Much (too many clothes, privileges, toys, activities, and entertainment); (2) Over-nurture (doing things for the child, and over-loving); and (3) Soft structure (no chores, too much freedom, allowed to dominate the family, not taught skills, no rules, rules were not enforced). Scoring procedure, reliability, validity, and factor structure for sub-scale scores ire fully described in the manual.


Overindulgence: Parental Overindulgence Assessment scale (OPOAS) is a 30-item instrument designed to measure parental overindulgence from the viewpoint of the parent. Parents respond to each question on a 5-item Likert scale. Overindulgence uses a scoring system that produces an aggregate overindulgence score and sub-scale scores for three types of overindulgence: Too much, Over-nurture, and Soft-structure.

This scale assesses parents’ overindulgent attitudes and behaviors toward their children. A high aggregate score indicates the parent overindulges his/her child(ren). A moderate aggregate score suggests the parent overindulges his/her child(ren) at moderate levels. And a low aggregate score suggest the parent does not overindulge his/her child(ren). Email Dr. David Bredehoft at 

                                                                 bredehoft@csp.edu for information regarding this scale.


Bredehoft-Slinger Delayed Gratification Scale (BSDGS) is a 22-item instrument designed to measure a participant’s ability to delay gratification. Participants respond to questions on a 7 point Likert scale. The BSDGS produces an aggregate score and three sub scale scores: (1) Impulsivity; (2) Task Completion; and (3) Anger/Frustration.

This scale assesses the respondent’s attitudes and behaviors as an adult. A low aggregate score “suggests the individual is an Instant Gratifier and does not have the ability to delay gratification. A high aggregate score“ indicates the individual is a Patient Postponerwho has a high amount of the ability to delay or postpone gratification.

© David J. Bredehoft, Jean Illsley Clarke & Connie Dawson 2004-2022;  bredehoft@csp.edu